More WasteExpo 2017 News and Product Updates

Firms continued to make news and product announcements as WasteExpo 2017 proceeded through its second full day.

Day two of WasteExpo 2017 brings more news from exhibitors. The Closed Loop Foundation, Mack, Norgren GT Development Corp., Trelleborg Wheel Systems, Caterpillar, McNeilus Truck & Manufacturing and the Solid Waste Association of North America all had news to report.

Mack LR Model Now Available in 4x2 Configuration;  Improves Refuse Customers’ Uptime With Mack Over The Air

Mack Trucks’ low-entry refuse cabover, the Mack LR model, is now available in a 4x2 configuration, giving customers a lighter, more maneuverable option for refuse collection. Mack made the announcement at WasteExpo 2017.

“The LR model was initially available as a 6x4 only, but some customers needed improved maneuverability that only a 4x2 configuration could offer,” Mack Refuse Product Manager Curtis Dorwart said in a statement.“With the addition of a 4x2 LR model, we’re pleased to meet the needs of an even wider range of refuse customers.”

With a shorter wheelbase and tighter turning radius, the 4x2 LR model has the ability to fit into alleys and other small spaces. The 4x2 LR model is also lighter than its 6x4 counterpart, improving handling. LR models in 4x2 configuration are available now for order.

Launched in 2015, the Mack LR model was engineered to meet the specific challenges of the refuse application. Customer input was incorporated into the cab design to deliver improved productivity through superior driver comfort, safety and visibility.

The cab’s enhanced driver environment includes power windows and power door locks, memory mirrors, in-dash air-conditioning, standard in-cab LED lighting and an instrument cluster with color LCD display. HVAC and radio controls are centrally-mounted and accessible from both driving positions. A tilt and telescoping steering column is also standard and features steering column-mounted main gauge pods for both the right-hand and left-hand driving positions to enhance gauge visibility and improve ergonomics.

The LR model was also designed with expansive front glass to provide unparalleled visibility. Wrap-around rear cab corner windows we also added to improve visibility and safety.

A new center storage space for lunch coolers, two-liter bottles, beverage cups, mobile phones and MP3 players was added, as was a rear-wall unit that offers two additional levels of storage.

All LR models are powered by Mack’s 11-liter MP-7 diesel engine with up to 355 horsepower and 1,260 lb.-ft. of torque. The Cummins Westport ISL G natural gas engine is optional. LR models are equipped with an Allison RDS five-speed or six-speed automatic transmission.

The LR model was also designed with body builders in mind and offers additional access points and mounting locations for wiring, controls and joysticks. Customers requiring additional support can turn to Mack’s new online Body Builder Portal, which brings together all of Mack’s body builder resources into one convenient online location. Resources available through the portal include wiring schematics, a PTO pump speed calculator and more, as well as contact information for Mack’s Body Builder Support Group.

Mack Trucks also announced that Mack Over The Air (OTA) will be available on refuse vehicles including the Mack 2018 Granite, TerraPro and LR models equipped with Mack 2017 GHG engines. Mack OTA allows customers to update software without disrupting their schedules, improving efficiency and increasing uptime.

“Mack refuse customers can plan for software updates and schedule them when it’s most convenient,” said David Pardue, vice president of connected vehicles and uptime services for Mack Trucks. “Refuse applications demand real-time service and support because they have to be up and running and on time. Mack OTA is the next step in our uptime journey.”

Mack OTA will be available on 2018 Mack LR models equipped with a Mack engine with the availability of GuardDog Connect beginning in the third quarter of 2017. Mack OTA for the TerraPro and Granite models is also planned for later in 2017.

Software updates for powertrain components and for vehicle parameters like road speed limits are available through Mack OTA.

Mack OTA capitalizes on fully integrated Mack GuardDog Connect telematics hardware to deliver the software updates directly to customers with minimal interruption to their operations.

GuardDog Connect comes standard on every Mack model equipped with a Mack engine and provides proactive monitoring and repair planning, enabling real-time diagnosis of issues, scheduling of repairs and confirmation that needed parts are in stock and ready to install. Combined with Mack ASIST and Mack’s live OneCall uptime agents, GuardDog Connect delivers the right mix of people and technology to provide decision-critical information to maximize customer uptime.

Mack’s uptime functions are based at the Mack Uptime Center, a 123,000-sq.-ft. facility that houses personnel from every customer support function. Through the latest telematics, communications and case management tools, the Uptime Center allows Mack uptime agents to work through cross-functional teams and address customer needs quickly and efficiently.

IMI Norgren and Aktv8 Launch Intelligent Lift Axle Control System for Commercial Vehicles

Motion and controls company Norgren GT Development Corp., in conjunction with transportation technology company Aktv8 LLC, introduced the revolutionary iLift intelligent lift axle control system designed to autonomously deploy and proportionally control the lift axle, keeping trucks load-legal without driver intervention. The innovative iLift system was unveiled at WasteExpo 2017.

“iLift is the perfect combination of Aktv8’s patented iAir technology and the patented IMI Norgren LACM (Lift Axle Control Module) to deliver performance and peace of mind for fleets using lift axles,” Aktv8 CEO Gary Meyer said in a statement. “It brings smart technology and monitoring to the simple, but critically important life axle system, simultaneously improving performance, safety and cost efficiency.”

Enabled by a patented electronic control module and a flexible software platform, iLift offers several industry firsts to commercial vehicle fleets and operators:

a) Automatic lift and deploy for driver focus and consistency.

b) Optimized load on drive axles for improved traction and braking.

c) Overload alerts.

d) Bluetooth configuration tool.

Lift axles today are critical to vehicle safety and performance. In the waste management industry alone there are more than 100,000 vehicles in operation.

“The IMI Norgren LACM has been sold for 10-years and has established a solid reputation as one of the highest reliability and fastest deploying lift axle valves in the market,” IMI Norgren Director of Sales and Marketing Commercial Vehicles Rachel Lahr said in a statement. “The addition of the iLift technology makes our system the clear innovation leader for the specialty vehicle market.”

Trelleborg Unveils Brawler HPS Soft Ride Solid Tire

Trelleborg Wheel Systems debuted the Brawler HPS Soft Ride, a new solid tire designed and developed specifically for the waste management and recycling industries, at WasteExpo.

Demonstrating Trelleborg’s commitment to protecting people and assets, this re-engineered version of the Brawler solid tire offers radically improved operator comfort and equipment-life through reduced vibration, while retaining the signature Brawler life performance in the harshest of applications.

“Extensive testing of the Brawler Soft Ride showed a 35 percent improvement in comfort compared to the standard solid tires used in the waste management and recycling segment,” Ditri Zweistra, segment manager specialty-mining, waste & recycling at Trelleborg, said in a statement. “For our customers, these results mean that this tire offers the life performance of a solid tire, with the operator comfort level of a foam-filled pneumatic tire: the ideal per hour cost of ownership for a segment that presents especially challenging environments.”

The Soft Ride tire features a new cushion rubber compound that significantly increases deflection and shock absorption. Combined with the Brawler ultra-cut-resistant tread compound this makes for a solid tire that is very tough, yet much less stiff. At the bottom line, this means all the benefits of a premium quality solid tire, plus a much more comfortable ride for operators, no loss of load-index, and increased efficiency even at higher operating speeds.

“The Brawler HPS Soft Ride was field-tested for over two years at waste and recycling facilities around the world,” Zweistra added. “At diverse locations, in a range of environments, the reactions of both operators and site managers were the same: ‘We don’t want to switch back.’ Trelleborg’s investment in this process, our time spent with customers in order to best understand and solve their key issues, is at the heart of our applications expertise.”

McNeilus and Agility Fuel Strengthen CNG Partnership

McNeilus Truck & Manufacturing announced the strengthening of its strategic alliance with natural gas industry leader Agility Fuel Solutions at WasteExpo 2017.

“By enhancing our relationship with Agility, we can provide added value for our customers,” Brad Nelson, president, McNeilus Truck & Manufacturing Inc., and Oshkosh Corporation’s Commercial Segment, said in a statement. “Linking Agility’s design and manufacturing expertise with our extensive installation, parts distribution and service capabilities creates a product and support system for natural gas fleets that is unmatched in the industry.”

The newly strengthened alliance is designed to offer fleets a broad and differentiated offering of designs and capacities to meet the needs of any customer. For instance, McNeilus will now be authorized to process claims, provide parts and service for Agility’s CNG systems and conduct Agility CNG installations throughout its branch network.

Agility’s strategic partnership with Cummins, the leading provider of engines to the trucking industry, has produced Blue iQ, an integrated engine and fuel system with performance enhancements, diagnostics improvements and telematics services. Ultimately, customers will receive a world class customer experience and benefit from the products and services of all three proven market leaders.

“Improving air quality around the world begins locally with cleaner and quieter refuse trucks in our communities,” said Kathleen Ligocki, CEO at Agility Fuel Solutions. “Agility is proud to introduce Blue iQ to the refuse industry through our alliance with McNeilus Truck & Manufacturing. Together we offer North America’s best-in-class products, sales network and service.”

SWANA Publishes New Tips for Safety at MRFs

Supporting the Solid Waste Association of North America's (SWANA) goal of promoting safety within the solid waste industry, SWANA has developed a new installment to its “Five to Stay Alive” series that features safety tips for Material Recovery Facility (MRF) employees.

The number of MRF worker fatalities increased over the previous year, and the multitude of injury hazards at recycling facilities remain high. The complex and fast-paced environment of a modern MRF requires well-trained and educated employees and employers.

The “Five to Stay Alive” safety campaign includes flyers and posters that provide a useful set of guidelines for employees to follow in order to reduce accidents and injuries on the job.

“The safety performance of the waste industry is not acceptable, and at least two MRF workers were killed earlier this year” stated David Biderman, SWANA’s Executive Director and CEO. “With volatile commodity prices, we urge companies and local governments to not reduce their focus on worker safety. SWANA will continue to provide useful safety resources and training to public and private sector employers and employees in both the United States and Canada. Nothing we do is more important.”

SWANA encourages waste industry professionals to use this tool, in addition to its other safety resources, to continue efforts in creating a positive workplace safety culture, in order to move the solid-waste industry off of the federal government’s list of most dangerous jobs.

“Our industry is relying more and more on MRFs to remove materials from the waste stream, which makes this new “Five to Stay Alive” installment particularly relevant,” said Tom Parker, SWANA’s Safety Committee Chair. “It is imperative that we work safely every minute of every day, and integrating these five basic principles at MRFs can help us achieve this goal.”

“Five to Stay Alive” resources are available for download on the SWANA website for easy sharing in promoting safety to colleagues and other industry professionals. The Spanish version will be available in June.

Closed Loop Foundation Launches Research Initiative

The Closed Loop Foundation, an independent 501c3 supported by investment platform Closed Loop Partners, has launched a research initiative to uncover existing and necessary capital investments in recycling infrastructure and the development of the circular economy.

As a result of this analysis, investors interested in strong financial and environmental returns will have actionable insights for deploying capital in this space. The study, which is supported by grants from Goldman Sachs Center for Environmental Markets and Wells Fargo Foundation, is seeking perspectives from capital providers and seekers working across the system–from residential curbside collection to advanced technologies and materials sciences.

“No one has yet been able to capture the capital investment available or needed to truly close the loop on post-consumer waste. A lack of data is a significant barrier for investors,” Foundation Board Chair Ron Gonen said in a statement.

Kevin Smith, of the Goldman Sachs Center for Environmental Markets and a member of the study’s advisory group, said, “Better understanding the capital requirements and opportunities that can drive greater resource efficiency and closed loop systems is incredibly important. We hope this study helps to inform investors and capital users in this regard.”

The study will produce insights in three key areas:

  1. Where has capital been deployed? — Recent trends in capital investments, with a focus on activity within the past three years
  2. Where is capital going? — Near-term forecasts for expansion, future investment, and associated impact
  3. Where are gaps, and what could we achieve if we fill those gaps? — Needed long-term investment and capacity to support stronger end market demand for PCR and significantly stronger infrastructure and innovation by 2030

The goal of the study is to provide stakeholders with practical guidance on investable opportunities across a wide spectrum of types and sources of capital. It will highlight deals across all aspects of circular infrastructure – from design and manufacturing, to collection, sorting and processing. A public report will be available later this year. Closed Loop Partners also plans to host events to help interested parties act on the report’s findings.

CAT Unveils New Landfill Compactor Models

Cat rolled out updates to its 836, 826 and 816 model landfill compactors.

The new 562-gross horsepower Cat 836K landfill compactor advances the solid engineering of its predecessors with a redesigned cab, an engine that meets U.S EPA Tier 4-Final (EU Stage IV) emissions regulations, new wheel and tip configurations, and enhanced safety and serviceability features.

The newly designed operator's station features improved ingress/egress for the convenience of the operator, and a standard rearview camera significantly enhances overall visibility. A new instrument pod features membrane switch panels, and automatic temperature control adds to the overall comfort of the cabin. Interior and bystander sound levels are reduced, and optional sound-suppression packages are available. Interior sound levels are a quiet 73 dB(A).

For operator convenience and added productivity, the 836K's Auto-Blade feature automatically raises the blade when the machine reverses and lowers the blade to a pre-set height when it moves forward. The STIC steering controller uses a single lever for steering and transmission control, allowing the operator to sit comfortably back in the seat, significantly lessening fatigue. Available are a heated seat and radio options, including Bluetooth, MPS, or satellite.

The 836K' s Cat C18 ACERT engine uses selective catalytic reduction to control nitrogen-oxide emissions and the Cat Clean Emissions Module—diesel particulate filter (DPF), diesel oxidation catalyst, and Cat Regeneration System—to control particulate emissions. DPF regeneration is automatic and does not interrupt the machine's work cycle. For added efficiency, an auto-reversing, hydraulically driven fan adjusts its speed to match cooling requirements, reducing horsepower draw and conserving fuel.

The Cat mechanical drive train in the 836K is purpose-built for the harsh waste- handling environment and ensures positive power transmission, productivity, and efficiency over the long haul, compared with alternative drive-train technologies.

Caterpillar's exclusive Impeller Clutch Torque Converter works with a throttle-lock feature to allow modulation of rimpull in order to slow the machine without reducing engine speed. This capability allows full hydraulic power for blade and steering functions at all ground speeds, while providing hydrostatic-drive-like performance. A direct-drive/converter-drive power-shift transmission and rugged planetary axles complete the 836K's drive train.

The 836K can come equipped with one of 3 new wheel and tip configurations to meet a particular application. The new Paddle Tip offers high performance and less fuel burn with more traction and less weight. The Plus Tip has a traditional design for increased side slope stability and the Combination Tip merges both paddle and plus tips to give high performance with side slope stability.

To protect key components and systems from damage, the 836K uses specialized guarding, including hydraulically actuated engine and power-train shields, front-frame guards to prevent trash build-up inside the frame and to protect hydraulic lines, and axle-seal guarding to stop material from binding around the axles. In addition, sight gauges and fill tubes are protected.

The air-inlet screen uses a vertically corrugated, fine-mesh design that assists in preventing trash from entering the radiator area. Striker bars forward and behind the rear wheels and behind the front wheels help keep wheels free of debris and assist in maintaining required compaction. In cohesive material or severe packing conditions, optional cleaner fingers are available to further assist wheel-tip cleaning.

To ensure safe maintenance access, the 836K's routine service points are easily reached from ground level or from a single-level upper platform. The swing-out radiator facilitates cleaning, grease points are centralized, and belly guards are hinged for easy handling. Sight gauges for coolant, transmission, and hydraulic-oil levels eliminate system contamination, an electronic air-inlet-restriction indicator eliminates visual filter inspections, and the electronics bay is located in the cab, safe from the working environment. For added safety, the 836K provides ground-level access to emergency shut-down, battery-disconnect, and stairway light switches.

Along with reduced exhaust emissions, the 836K provides a number of fuel-saving features that reduce the 836K's CO2 footprint, such as Auto Idle Kickdown (reduces engine speed when the machine is inactive for a set time interval) and Idle Shutdown (stops the engine after a safe idling interval). The 836K also uses Cat HYDO™ hydraulic oil, which allows extended drain intervals (up to six times longer than conventional oils) and is significantly more biodegradable. And, of course, the 836K is built for multiple lives, with robust components that allow rebuilding through Caterpillar's Reman and Certified Rebuild programs.

The Cat 826 Landfill Compactor has set the design standard for this demanding application since 1978, and with the introduction of the K Series model, that design is further advanced in terms of operator comfort and safety, ease of operation, durability, reliability, low-cost operation, and productivity. Two Cat C15 ACERT engine options are available, meeting U.S. EPA Tier 4 Final/EU Stage IV emission standards or U.S. EPA Tier 3/EU Stage IIIA equivalent emission standards. It delivers 405 net horsepower (302 kW) to the 826K's drive train, which uses a 2F/2R planetary power-shift transmission, lock-up torque converter, and heavy-duty planetary axles that can accommodate three new wheel-and- tip configurations. With an operating weight of 90,207 pounds (40 917 kg), coupled with massive structures that remain solid through a number of rebuilds, the 826K is built for rugged durability.

For fuel-saving performance, the 826K features an Eco Mode, which, when selected by the operator, limits engine speed and allows the machine to function in an auto-shift mode when maximum torque is not required. For operator convenience, the left pedal serves as a brake, transmission neutralizer, and engine decelerator, which the operator can use to temporarily override the engine speed set with the throttle lock for safely maneuvering around obstacles. And for optimum responsiveness and control, the 826K's STIC system allows single-lever steering and transmission control.

Operator comfort and convenience is further accommodated in the design of the 826K with easier entrance and exit from the cab with lighted, shallow-angle stairways and a STIC armrest that folds away. The Cat Comfort Series air-suspension seat features extra thick cushions and moves the attached electro-hydraulic STIC-control pod and implement-control pod when adjusted. The cab, isolation-mounted to the frame, is pressurized with filtered air, and the selected temperature is maintained automatically. The control panel uses large, back-lit switches with LED indicators, and a simple two-position rocker switch controls the parking brake.

The 826K delivers consistent, smooth shifting via integrated electronic controls that use the Caterpillar Single Clutch Speed Shifting system. The metallurgy and heat-treating incorporated into the transmission's gearing ensure consistent performance and long-term durability. The lock-up torque converter used in the 826K has several benefits, including more efficient transmission of power, lower system heat, increased travel speed, and fuel efficiency. Further fuel savings are achieved with the C15's Engine Idle Shutdown system, and engine durability is enhanced with delayed engine shutdown.

Because the landfill compactor works in the harshest of applications, Caterpillar has designed the machine with purpose-built structures that deliver long-term durability. The full-box-section rear frame resists twisting forces and shock, the steering-cylinder mounts are designed to effectively dissipate steering loads into the frame, and the axle mounts are heavy-duty components that contribute to the overall structural integrity of the machine.

Specialized guarding protects the 826K's systems and components from job-site hazards, such as debris build-up, chemicals, and wire and plastics that might wrap around wheel assemblies.

Hydraulically actuated engine and power-train guards shield components and resist debris build up; front-frame guards further prevent trash build-up in the frames and add protection for hydraulic lines; axle-wrapping and seal guards reduce the prospect of material binding around the axles; a fine-mesh air-inlet screen prevents material from entering the engine compartment; an under-hood ventilation system resists trash intrusion cools components; and striker bars and cleaner fingers help keep the wheels clean for optimum compaction effort.

The 826K is available with three new wheel-and-tip configurations to improve machine performance and to meet individual landfill applications. The Paddle Tip configuration is designed for greater traction with less weight, providing high performance coupled with reduced fuel burn. The Plus Tip is a conventional design that increases side-slope stability, and the Combination Tip provides a practical compromise of important elements—performance, fuel economy, and side-slope stability.

To promote the safety of personnel servicing the 826, routine maintenance points are grouped and accessible from ground level or from non-skid walkways with hand rails. Swing-out doors on both sides of the engine compartment provide easy access to daily service checks, and ecology drains simplify service and help prevent spills. An available swing-out stairway facilitates access to the engine. In addition, swing-out coolers for fuel and hydraulic fluid simplify cleaning, and a ground-level power service center has an electrical-disconnect, emergency-engine-shutdown, and stairway-light switches.

To further complement serviceability, the Cat Vital Information System (VIMS™ 3G) integrated into the 826's design keeps operators informed about machine operating conditions via an easy-to-view graphic display that features touch-screen interface. To expand machine-monitoring capability, the Cat Product Link™ system provides event and diagnostic codes, as well as data such as operating hours, fuel level, and idle time. This information is transmitted to a secure web-based application, VisionLink®, which provides powerful tools for conveying information to machine owners and dealers, including working time versus idle time and mapping functions.

The new Cat 816K landfill compactor builds on the established performance, durability, and reliability that the model 816 has demonstrated since 1972. The new K Series model, designed with heavy-duty main structures that support multiple life cycles, features a fuel-efficient Cat C7.1 ACERT engine, single-lever steering, pressurized cab, and wheel/tip options that provide extended service life. Available Cat COMPACT Technologies, such as Compaction Control, further enhance compaction performance and consistency by providing accurate compaction values and 3D mapping.

The foundation of the 816K’s purpose-built design is its massive, robotically welded main structures, featuring a full box-section rear frame that resists torsional shock and twisting forces, heavy-duty steering cylinder mounts to efficiently transmit steering loads into the frame, and an axle-mounting design that is optimized for increased structural integrity.

Three new wheel and tip configurations allow matching the 816K to the application. The Paddle Tip reduces weight and provides high performance with reduced fuel burn. The Plus Tip provides increased side-slope stability, and the Combination Tip provides an effective compromise of performance, fuel economy, and side-slope stability.

In addition, specialized guarding protects components from damage, debris accumulation, chemicals, and premature wear, including axle guarding that prevents material from wrapping and binding around the axles. The transmission oil tube is guarded, and the fuel tank is positioned away from debris in the front frame. A screened air inlet for the radiator is placed high at the rear of the machine to prevent debris from blocking airflow, and the grille’s design allows trash to fall away. Striker bars are designed to keep wheels free of debris, and optional cleaner fingers are available for use in cohesive soils and in material that packs between tips.

The C7.1 ACERT engine meets U.S. EPA Tier 4 Final/EU Stage IV emissions standards with advanced technologies that do not interrupt the machine's work cycle. (A Tier 3/Stage IIIA equivalent configuration is available in certain areas.) The Cat Next Generation high-pressure/common-rail fuel system delivers fuel in a precise series of micro-bursts during each cycle, providing extremely efficient combustion, and control systems lower the engine’s average working speed for reduced heat loads and added fuel efficiency. An engine-idle-shutdown system saves fuel by eliminating excess idling.

The 816K's Caterpillar built planetary power-shift transmission features special metallurgy and gear heat-treating to ensure long-term durability. The transmission's Advanced Productivity Electronic Control System (APECS) is designed to improve transmission shifting performance, provide a higher level of operator comfort, and increase production. Heavy-duty planetary axles complete the power train, the front is fixed and the rear oscillates ± 6 degrees.

The 816K’s Cat STIC Steering and Transmission Integrated Control combines steering and transmission control (directional and gear selection) into a single lever. Simple side-to-side movements of the low-effort lever provide precise steering maneuvers through 42 degrees of articulation right and left. Electro-hydraulic implement controls use soft detents, and cylinders use electronically controlled stops for smooth operation. The left pedal serves as a brake, transmission neutralizer, and decelerator that overrides the engine-speed setting.

The operator’s environment is kept clean via filtered air that pressurizes the cab, and temperature is maintained with an automatic climate-control system. The cab is isolation- mounted to reduce vibration, and operator comfort is enhanced with an air-suspension seat or the available Cat Comfort Series III seat. Back-lighted membrane switches have LED indicators and ISO identification, and a standard rearview camera system enhances operator awareness.

Routine service points for the 816K, including grease fittings, are grouped for convenience and reached from ground level via swing-out doors or from non-slip platforms. A ground-level service panel includes a master disconnect switch with integrated lock-out/tag-out, DEF purge lamp for Tier 4 Final/Stage IV machines, circuit breakers, fuel-shutoff switch, and jump-start receptacle. Ecology drains help prevent spills, and side doors facilitate cleaning of the cooling system.

The 816K is designed for multiple machine lives and component rebuilds utilizing Caterpillar sustainable options such as the Reman and Certified Rebuild programs. These options could save a customer up to 70% of purchasing a new comparable machine by reusing components or replacing with manufactured components.

The Cat Vital Information Management system (VIMS) notifies operators and technicians about potential problems, allowing issues to be resolved quickly, preventing unscheduled downtime. In addition, Cat LINK technologies wirelessly provide equipment managers with critical information, via the VisionLink® interface, including machine location, hours, fuel usage, idle time and event codes.

Cat COMPACT technologies combine advanced compaction measurement, in-cab guidance, and reporting capabilities to help consistently meet compaction targets, uniformly, in fewer passes, saving rework time and fuel. The factory-installed Cat Compaction Control system measures compaction values and provides 3D pass-mapping guidance that indicates when layers have reached optimum density. Mapping helps eliminate voids, optimizes cell space, and documents results.

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