Landfill Managers' Sourcebook

Waste Age helps landfill managers cut to the chase in its annual reference guide.

Need to know the latest land-fill guidelines or how to install a landfill gas-to-energy system? There are a wealth of resources available to help. While not an exhaustive manual, Waste Age has identified some key references.

CIWMB In addition to providing grants for landfill projects, the California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB), Sacramento, Calif., provides news updates and reports for landfill managers. For example:

- "1997 Tipping Fees at California Solid Waste Disposal Facilities" lists the solid waste facilities in California, the facility category and tipping fees.

- "Subsurface Landfill Gas Monitoring Strategies in California."

- "Examples of Disposal Site Postclosure Land Projects."

- "1999 California Landfill Tonnage Report by Facility."

For information, contact CIWMB, 1001 I Street, P.O. Box 4025, Sacramento, Calif. 95812. Phone: (916) 255- 2200. Website: www.ciwmb. ca/gov.

EIA The Environmental Industry Associations (EIA) oversees the Waste Equipment Technology Association (WASTEC) and the National Solid Wastes Management Association (NSWMA).

Landfill-related publications available through the EIA include:

- "Solid Waste Disposal Trends - Historical tracking of landfill tipping fees, numbers, capacity and membership;"

- "Interstate Movement of Municipal Solid Waste Volumes of Waste Moving Interstate;"

- "Basic data - Solid Waste Amounts, Composition and Management Systems;

- Waste Tech Conference Proceedings; and

- Books, such as "The Handbook of Landfill Operations" by Neil Bolton.

WASTEC, which represents waste industry manufacturers and distributors, has developed Project Work Groups (PWGs) for landfill equipment, collection and transportation and processing equipment.

For more information about PWGs, contact Nate Wall, WASTEC at (202) 244-4700 or e-mail him at: nwall@

WASTEC also provides landfill operations safety standards. ANSI Z245. 41-1997, the safety bible for landfill facility managers, includes:

- Z245.1 (1992) Mobile Refuse Collection and Transport Safety Requirements for persons engaged in the manufacture, modification, operation, cleaning, maintenance, service or repair of mobile collecting equipment.

- Z245.2 (1997) Stationary Compactors Safety Requirements for persons engaged in the manufacture, modification, operation, cleaning, maintenance, service or repair of stationary compacting equipment.

- Z245.5 (1997) Baling Equipment Safety Requirements for mechanical, electro-mechanical and electro-hydraulic and hydraulic balers used in recycling and resource recovery processes, solid waste disposal and raw materials handling. This standard sets safety requirements for the manufacture, installation, reconstruction, modification, maintenance and operation of balers.

To suggest standard improvements or receive standard interpretation, contact the Secretary, Accredited Standards Committee Z245, c/o Environmental Industry Associations, 4301 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Ste. 300, Washington, D.C. 20008. Phone: (202) 244-4700.

The NSWMA branch of the EIA represents for-profit companies in North America that provide solid, hazardous and medical waste collection, recycling and disposal services, remedial and oil spill clean-up, and professional and consulting services.

Information is available to landfill managers, including non-NSWMA members, at: www.envasns. org

The NSWMA also hosts the annual Waste Tech Conference, which deals specifically with technical waste management issues in landfills. This year, the conference will be held at the Hyatt Regency Islandia on San Diego, Calif.'s Mission Bay. For information, call Ed Repa toll-free at (800) 424-2869 or (202) 364-3773. E-mail:

For NSWMA members, the Landfill Institute Washington Update newsletter is available. This update of federal legislative and regulatory issues is sent to members 10 times per year.

Additionally, NSWMA members have access to technical and legal information such as analyses of regulations and legal decisions, as well as technical information packets on issues such as the effects of landfills on property values, environmental risks associated with landfills and end-uses for landfills. For more information, call Ed Repa at (202) 364-3773.

EPA The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, D.C., is a storehouse of landfill publications and guidelines. Here's a sampling.

Mathematical Models - Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance Model. Website:

- Groundwater Information Tracking System/Statistics Software Documentation (GRITS/SAT). Website:

- Landfill Gas Emissions Model. Website: html#software

NSPS Standards & Guidelines The following EPA reports refer to the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) for municipal solid waste landfills:

- "Enabling document for NSPS/EG-MSW Landfills 3-7-96" Website:

- "Background Information Document (BID) MSW Landfills 3-28-96" Website: html

- "Proposed Settlement; Municipal Solid Waste Landfills NSPS and EG Litigation; 62FR60898; Nov. 13, 1997."

- "Landfill Air Emission Estimation Model, EPA-600/8-90-085a, PB91-167 718, manual; EPA600/8-90-085b, PB91- 507 541, software and manual." Website:

Bioreactor Landfills - The EPA is considering revisions to the Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (40CFR Part 258) with respect to the use of alternative liners when leachate is recirculated and with respect to allowing the operation of landfills as more advanced bioreactors. Send comments, including two copies to: RCRA information Center (RIC), Office of Solid Waste (5305G), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, HQ), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, D.C. 20460. Responses may also be submitted electronically to rcra-docket@ All comments must be identified by the docket number F-2000-ALPA-FFFFF. For more information, refer to:, or call the RCRA/Superfund Hotline at (800) 424-9346.

- Environmental Fact Sheet: The EPA is requesting information on bioreactor landfills and performance of alternative liners for landfills when leachate is recirculated. Contact: Dept. of Commerce National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, Va. 22151. Phone toll-free: (800) 553-6847 or (800) 490-9198. Source Name: NTIS. Fax: (703) 321-8547. Website:

- Alternative Liner Performance, Leachate Recirculation and Bioreactor Landfills. Website:

The Latest on CD EPA has complied a number of documents concerning municipal solid waste landfills on compact disc. Among the reports are:

- "Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria; Proposed Rule, 53 FR 33314, Aug. 30, 1988."

- "U.S. EPA, OSW, Location Restrictions (Subpart B) Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (40 CFR Part 258) Subtitle D of RCRA, July 1988 (draft)."

- "U.S. EPA, OSW, Summary of Data on Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Leachate Characteristics - Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (40 CFR Part 258) - Subtitle D of RCRA, July 1988 (draft)."

- "U.S. EPA, OSW, Updated Review of Selected Provisions of State Solid Waste Regulations - Criteria for MSW Landfills (40 CFR Part 258) - Subtitle D of RCRA, July 1988 (draft)."

- "U.S. EPA, OSW, Addendum to RIA for Final Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (40 CFR Part 258) Subtitle D of RCRA, August 1991."

- "Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria; Final Rule, 56 FR 50978, October 9, 1991, OSWFR91004."

- "Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria; Final Rule, Corrections, 57 FR 28626, June 26, 1992."

- "Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria; Delay of Compliance and Effective Dates; Final Rule, 58 FR 51536, Oct. 1, 1993."

- "Financial Assurance Effective Date for Owners and Operators of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facilities; Final Rule, 60 FR 17649, April 7, 1995."

- "Delay of General Compliance Date for Small MSW Landfills Located in Either Dry or Remote Areas; Final Rule, 60 FR 52337, Oct. 6, 1995."

- "Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria; Re-establishment of Ground Water Monitoring Exemption for Small Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Located in Either Dry or Remote Areas; Final Rule, 61 FR 50410, Sep. 25, 1996."

- "Financial Assurance Mechanisms for Local Government Owners and Operators of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facilities; Proposed Rule, 58 FR 68353, December 27, 1993."

- "Financial Assurance Mechanisms for Local Government Owners and Operators of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facilities; Final Rule, 61 FR 60328, Nov. 27, 1996." Website:

- "Financial Responsibility Under RCRA Subtitle D; U.S. EPA, Office of Solid Waste, November 20-21, 1996."

- "Revisions to Criteria for Municipal solid Waste Landfills; Final Rule, 62 FR 40708, July 29, 1997."

- "Financial Assurance Mechanisms for Corporate Owners and Operators of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facilities; Proposed Rule, 59 FR 51523, Oct. 12, 1994."

- "Financial Assurance Mechanisms for Corporate Owners and Operators of MSW Landfill Facilities; Final Rule, 63 FR 17706, April 10, 1998." Website: www. epa. gov/fedrgstr/EPA-WASTE/1998/ April/Day-10/f9558.htm

- "Municipal Landfill Regulations Mean Safer Disposal of Solid Waste; Environmental Fact Sheet; EPA/530-SW-91-066, September 1991."

- "Small Communities and the Municipal Landfill Regulations; Environmental Fact Sheet; EPA/530-SW-91-067; September 1991."

- "Final Cover Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills; Environmental Fact Sheet; EPA/530-SW-91-084; March 1992."

- "Safer Disposal For Solid Waste: The Federal Regulations for Landfills; EPA/530-SW-91-092: March 1993." Website:

- "Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria Technical Manual; EPA530-R93-017; November 1993." Website: www.epa. gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/landfill/techman/index.htm

- "Landfill Reclamation; EPA 530-F-97-001; July 1997." Website:

- "Geosynthetic Clay Liners Used in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills; EPA 530-F-97-002; July 1997." Website:

- "Lining of Waste Containment and Other Impoundment Facilities; EPA/ 600/2-88/062; September 1988."

- "The Use of Alternative Materials for Daily Cover at Municipal Solid Waste Landfills; EPA/600/R-93/172; PB 92 227 197; July 1993."

- "Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Liner Petition Process [40 CFR Part 258. 40(e)]; Interim Final Guidance; Memorandum; Sept. 20, 1993."

- "Site-Specific Flexibility Requests for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in Indian Country Draft Guidance; EPA 530-R-97-016; August 1997." Website: /muncpl/landfill/indian/siteflex.htm

LMOP The EPA's Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) is a voluntary program that works with project developers, energy companies, landfill owners and operators, energy users and communities to encourage the development of landfill gas-to-energy (LFGTE) projects. Toward this goal, LMOP provides marketing information, assistance and tools to encourage landfill gas projects. Landfill profiles, fact sheets, project development manuals, cost estimation software, etc., are available.

Also among its offerings, LMOP's LFGTE Catalog lists federal and other national funding resources for U.S. LFGTE projects. For more information, contact: U.S. EPA Landfill Methane Outreach Program Climate Protection Division, 401 M Street, SW (6202J), Washington, D.C. 20460-0001. Phone toll-free: (888) 782-7937. Fax: (202) 775-6680. Website:

SWANA The Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA), Silver Spring, Md., has two technical divisions dedicated to landfill issues.

The Landfill Management Division works to provide practical solutions to planning, designing, constructing, operating and closing landfills. For more information, contact division director Chris Campman at (610) 256-5264.

The Landfill Gas Management Division has a 20-year history and is recognized as an authority on issues surrounding landfill gas control, management, utilization, technology, design, operation and maintenance of landfill gas systems. For more information, contact Lori Scozzafava, SWANA director of technical programs, at (301) 585-2898. E-mail:

References SWANA also provides several landfill gas references, including:

- "Methane Generation and Recovery from Landfills," 1982 by EMCON;

- "Landfill Gas Operation and Maintenance Manual of Practice";

- Database of LFGTE projects;

- Video on LFGTE benefits;

- Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Gas Design Plan Review Course by North Carolina State University;

- "Energizing Your Community with Landfill Gas Energy," by EPA's Landfill Methane Outreach Program;

- Proceeding from 22 Annual Landfill Gas Symposiums;

- "Master Construction Specifications for Landfill Gas Conveyance Systems;"

- "A Compilation of Landfill Gas Field Practices and Procedures;" and

- "Landfill Reclamation Manual of Practice and Procedures."

SWANA landfill publications for sale include: - "Landfill Gas Operation & Maintenance - Manual of Practice," 1997. No. GR-LG 0240. 285 pages.

- "A Compilation of Landfill Gas Field Practices and Procedures," 1992. No. GR-LG 0101. 77 pages.

- "Master Construction Specifications for Landfill Gas Conveyance Systems," 1995. No. GR-LG 0695. 95 pages.

- Annual International Landfill Gas Symposium Proceedings.

- Annual Landfill Symposium Proceedings.

- "Landfill Reclamation - Manual of Practice and Procedure," 1997. No. GR-D 2245. 99 pages.

- "Groundwater Monitoring, Sampling, Analysis and Well Construction," 1997. No. GR-D 0525. 115 pages.

- "Leachate Generation, Collection and Treatment at MSW Landfills," 1997. No. GR-D 0535. 54 pages.

- "Evaluation of the Collier County, Fla., Landfill Mining Demonstration," 1993. No. MSW-D 1360. 47 pages.

- "A Compilation of Current Readings: Leachate Recirculation and Landfill Bioreactors," 1997. No. GR-D 0540. 90 pages.

- "Comparison of Models for Predicting Landfill Methane Recovery," 1998. No. GR-LG 0075. 100 pages.

- "Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management: Six Case Studies of System Cost and Energy Use - Springfield, Mass.; Scottsdale, Ariz.; Sevierville, Tenn.; Palm Beach County, Fla.; Minneapolis; Seattle," 1995. 1,040 pages.

- "Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management: Six Case Studies of System Cost and Energy Use - A Summary Report," 1995. 50 pages.

- "Solid Waste Enterprise Funds - A Review of Four Case Study Communities," 1993. 125 pages.

- "How To Win the Siting War: A Series of Case Studies on Siting Municipal Solid Waste Management Facilities," 1992. 30 pages.

- WASTECON - SWANA's Annual International Solid Waste Exposition Proceedings.

For information, contact SWANA, 1100 Wayne Ave., Ste. 700, Silver Spring, Md. 20910. Phone: (301) 585-2898. Fax: (301) 589-7068. Website:

Training Materials Additionally, SWANA offers several educational and training materials, which are designed to increase the level of understanding of municipal solid waste operations. Training courses include:

- Landfill Gas System Operations & Maintenance;

- Operational Issues for Landfill Managers;

- Paying for Your Municipal Solid Waste System;

- Solid Waste Managers Workshop; and

- Strategic Outsourcing.

On-site training packages for landfill personnel include: - Training Sanitary Landfill Operating Personnel;

- Training Collection Operating Personnel;

- Health & Safety at Landfills; and

- Waste Screening at Municipal Solid Waste Management Facilities.

Home study packages include: - Managing Landfill Gas at Municipal Solid Waste Landfills;

- Groundwater Monitoring, Sampling, Analysis and Well Construction;

- Leachate Generation, Collection and Treatment at MSW Landfills; and

- Waste Screening at Municipal Solid Waste Management Facilities.

By addressing current health and safety issues, regulatory developments, customer service techniques and operational practices, training packages are designed to assist with daily operations performed by managers, supervisors and operators. Each lesson in the training package is intended to be a module, which can be taught individually or with other modules to create an appropriate course length.

Each package includes one instructor's manual, five student manuals and visual aids (black and white overheads, color slides or CD-Rom PDF presentations). The total course contains approximately 10 to 15 hours of training, which can be taught on-site. SWANA recertification credit is available for instructors and attendees of the training package course. For information contact SWANA Member Services at (301) 585-2898.

Landfill Q&A In addition to researching questions for its members, SWANA provides informational support through the Local Government Environmental Assistance Network (LGEAN). Anyone with a solid waste or landfill question can request that SWANA staff look for information through this program.

Several resources are just a phone call or mouse click away, including:

- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Contact. Dwight Hlustick, Phone: Hlustick (703) 308-8647. E-mail:

- The EPA MSW Fact Book. Website: www.epa/gov/factbook/ index.htm or facts.htm for a summary.

- List of Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. Website:

- A Collection of Solid Waste Resources. A CD is available by calling the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hotline toll-free: (800) 424-9346.

The EPA is accepting comments on its proposed rules for National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. Published in the Federal Register on Nov. 7, 2000, the rules propose national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and apply to both major and area sources. They contain the same requirements as the Emission Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards (EG/NSPS) for MSW landfills, but add startup, shutdown and malfunction requirements. The rules also add operating condition deviations for out-of-bound monitoring parameters, and change the reporting frequency from each year to every six months.

Written comments should be submitted in duplicate to: Air and Radiation docket and Information Center (6102), Attn: Docket No. A-98-28, U.S. Envrionmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, D.C. 20460. The EPA also requests a separate copy be sent to Michele Laur, Waste an Chemical Processes Group, emission Standards Division (MD-13), Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711. Comments must be received before Jan. 8, 2001.

For more information, contact Michele Laur (919) 541-5256. Fax: (919) 541-0246. E-mail:

The Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular provides clarification on provision AIR 21 (H.R. 1000), and contains specific guidance on requirements regarding the construction or establishment of landfills near public airports. However, landfills can apply for exemption under the law. Contact Donald Byrne at the FAA Office of Chief Counsel, Regulations Division. Phone: (202) 267-3073 for more information.