High Density Polyethylene

High Density Polyethylene(HDPE) resin is produced from the chemical compound ethylene. HDPE bottles are blow-molded. The bottles are used for milk and other beverages, detergents, shampoos, motor oil, drugs and cosmetic products. Most milk and water bottles use a natural-colored HDPE resin. Bottles used for other products often have colorants added to the resin.

Injection-molded HDPE containers are used for products such as margarine and yogurt. More HDPE bottles are produced than containers. HDPE resin also can be used to make bottle and container caps and flexible packaging such as sacks and trash bags. HDPE is also used in many non-packaging products.

Bottles and containers comprise 46 percent of HDPE packaging products and 37 percent of all HDPE products. HDPE bottles and containers began displacing heavier metal, glass and paper packages in the 1970s. Although the amount of HDPE used in bottles and containers has tripled since 1980, its garbage market share is still less than 1 percent.

This profile only covers HDPE bottles and containers.

Chaz Miller is state programs director for the National Solid Wastes Management Association, Washington, D.C. E-mail the author at: cmiller@envasns.org.

HDPE Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Facts:


  • 2.21 million tons or 0.9% by weight.*

  • 0.8 million tons of milk and water bottles.*

  • 1.41 million tons of containers for other products.*

  • 14.91 pounds per person per year.*


  • 460,000 tons or a 21% recycling rate.*

  • 230,000 tons of milk and water bottles or a 28.8% recycling rate.*

  • 230,000 tons of other bottles or a 16.3% recycling rate.*

  • 466,000 tons or a 27% recycling rate in 2005, based on industry data.

  • #2 in the plastic resin code.

Recycled Content:

  • Varies by end product, but increasingly common in non-food containers.


  • HDPE does not compost.

Incinerated or Landfilled:

  • 1.75 million tons or 1.04% of discarded MSW by weight.*

  • Highly combustible with 18,690 BTUs per pound, more than three times that of MSW.

  • Not biodegradable in landfills.

Landfill Volume:

  • 6.3 million cubic yards in 1997.

  • 1.5% of landfilled MSW in 1997.


  • Landfilled milk jugs weigh 355 pounds per cubic yard (lbs./c.y.).

  • Loose milk jugs weigh 24 lbs./c.y.

  • Flattened milk jugs weigh 65 lbs./c.y.

  • Loose, colored HDPE bottles weigh 45 lbs./c.y.

  • Bales of HDPE generally weigh 500-800 pounds.

Source Reduction:

  • An empty 1-gallon milk jug weighs less than 60 grams, compared to 95 grams in 1970.

Recycling Markets:

  • Packaging, drainage pipe, film, pallets, and plastic lumber and exports.

Recycling End-Market Specifications:

  • ISRI Scrap Specifications Circular 2006: Baled Recycled Plastic Standard P-200 (HDPE Mixed), P-201 (HDPE Natural), P-202 (HDPE Pigmented) for bottles only.

  • The specifications allow 2% contamination, no free liquids and UV protection.


American Plastics Council, Washington, www.plasticsresource.org

“Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 2005 Facts and Figures,” Office of Solid Waste, Washington, www.epa.gov/osw

“Design for Recycling, A Plastic Bottle Recycler's Perspective,” Society of Plastics Industries

“Measurement Standards and Reporting Guidelines,” National Recycling Coalition, www.nrc-recycle.org

“Scrap Specifications Circular 2006,” Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries, Washington, www.isri.org

*2005 EPA estimates.