TRENDS

When you need the space, which way do you go - up or out? That was the question faced by one Florida county landfill.

The problem? Located along Florida's west coast, Charlotte County has experienced growing numbers of retirees moving into their community, increasing the demands on roads, utilities and its Zemel Road Landfill.

Faced with deciding how to provide additional landfill capacity, the county had to determine which was the more cost effective way to add to the facility's life span: vertical or horizontal expansion.

The original operating and closure permit limited the site to 98 feet at closure with final grades of 10:1 slopes. The county, with the help of Tampa, Fla.-based HDR Engineering Inc. conducted an elevation study which concluded that the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) would consider a five-year landfill permit renewal application, allowing an increased landfill elevation to 130 feet with a 3:1 slope.

Using Zemel's contour data - provided by a construction quality, aerial survey - the consultants compared Zemel's permitted design for Phase I and II with the alternative design, specifically the landfill's remaining volumes at 98 feet versus the proposed elevation of 130 feet. (Three-to-one side slopes and 20-foot-wide terraces were assumed.) In addition, the data was compared against the landfill volumes already effectively used, as noted by the topographic survey.

Based on these results, estimate Zemel's remaining life was estimated with assumptions of per capita waste generation (6.9 pounds per person per day), current county recycling rates (40 percent), assumed compaction density (1,200 pounds per cubic yard) and final top elevation. These assumptions also were used in the county's closure financial responsibility report to the FDEP for 1996.

The report concluded several potential advantages to modifying the landfill's design:

* Increased landfill life. Increasing the landfill's elevation to 130 feet at closure would increase Zemel's life span to the year 2020 - 11 years more than the original projections.

* Environmental benefits. Increasing the elevation to 130 feet will not require expanding the landfill's footprint, which, compared to expanding the existing cell, would minimize the stormwater and wetlands impact on an adjacent parcel.

* Construction and capital cost savings. Reconfiguring the existing footprint would require minimal capital construction costs as Zemel would be filled daily as part of the overall design.

Expanding onto an adjacent county-owned site, however, would require construction of at least a 100-acre, double-lined landfill cell, with costs estimated between $18 million and $22 million. This new cell also would require bond funding with an additional fund reserve account, underwriting costs, payments for municipal bond insurance, etc.

* Develop capital reserve account with additional landfill capacity. The county's existing bond payments for Zemel (slurry wall, leachate treatment plant and injection well) will end in 2011. Debt service is approximately $1 million per year, paid from tipping fees. So, instead of reducing tipping fees in 2011, the county could deposit the amounts previously paid for debt service into a reserve account collecting interest for eight years, until landfill expansion ultimately would be required.

* Spread landfill closure costs over additional years. The county's budget department typically places additional funds into the landfill's closure account to pay for long-term maintenance, as required by FDEP.

With the new landfill projections, the county could defer payments into this account for several years or spread the needed payments over the 11 additional years.

While not every landfill design study can result in large cost savings, public landfills should evaluate design options which may result in improved economics and enhanced landfill life.

"Thinking out of the box" in Charlotte County resulted in construction cost savings which will be passed along to the county's ratepayers in terms of reduced long-term disposal costs and capital expenditures.

Contracts Shred-Tech, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada, has been awarded a $3- million contract by Micro Metallics Corp., San Jose, Calif., to supply and install a custom-designed system to reduce computer and computer hardware for the recovery of component metals.

The city of Riverview, Mich., has awarded a multi-year contact to EMCON, San Mateo, Calif., to provide engineering services to the Riverview Land Preserve, a 285-acre solid waste disposal facility. Services include: routine landfill site support, evaluation of the landfill's airspace use, leachate and landfill gas management projects. and development of a master plan for the landfill.

Fiscal Browning-Ferris Industries Inc., Houston, reported consolidated net income, before an extraordinary charge, for the quarter ending March 31 of $70,955,000, or 35 cents per share, on consolidated revenues of $1.414 billion.

Eastern Environmental Services Inc., Mt. Laurel, N.J., reported revenue for the quarter ending March 31 of $19.5 million and operating income of $2.6 million, excluding merger costs of $1.5 million, compared to $9.6 million in revenue and $16,000 in operating income for the same period in fiscal 1996.

Republic Industries Inc., Fort Lauderdale, Fla., reported that for the three months ending March 31, net income increased 133 percent to $28.9 million, or 8 cents per share, from $12.4 million, or 4 cents per share in 1996 for the same period.

USA Waste, Houston, reported financial results for the first quarter ending March 31. Net income increased 78 percent to $49.1 million, while earnings per share rose 52 percent compared to the 1996 period. Also, operating profits increased 64 percent to $88.8 million from $54.2 million.

New Division National Seal Co., Aurora, Ill., has announced the creation of its Piping and Gas Collection Systems Division. This new division offers complete systems for landfill gas recover and other HDPE pipe installations and will be headquartered in Baton Rouge, La.

Paperboard Alliance The 100% Recycled Paperboard Alliance joined with eight major packaged goods companies to participate in a high-visibility marketing campaign featuring products packaged in 100 percent recycled paperboard. The companies include: General Mills, Lever Brother Co., The Dial Corp., Martin's Potato Chips, New Mexico's Kitchen, Oceana Foods, Comet American Marketing and General Building Corp.

Patent SwapLoader, Des Moines, Iowa, a manufacturer of hook-lift hoists, has been awarded a U.S. patent for the dual-capacity of its Model SL-2418HD, a model designed for medium-duty trucks with 96" cab-to-axle.

Purchase Reko B.V. has purchased an MSS VYDAR Automated Plastic Flake Removal System for installation in its PET recycling facility in Geleen, Holland, from MSS International Inc., Nashville, Tenn.

Fiscal Browning-Ferris Industries Inc., Houston, reported consolidated net income for the quarter ending March 31 of $70,955,000, or 35 cents per share, on consolidated revenues of $1.414 billion.

Eastern Environmental Services Inc., Mt. Laurel, N.J., reported revenue for the quarter ending March 31 of $19.5 million and operating income of $2.6 million, excluding merger costs of $1.5 million, compared to $9.6 million in revenue and $16,000 in operating income for the same period in fiscal 1996.

Republic Industries Inc., Fort Laud-erdale, Fla., reported that for the three months ending March 31, net income increased 133 percent to $28.9 million. or 8 cents per share from $12.4 million, or 4 cents per share in 1996 for the same period.

USA Waste, Houston, reported financial results for the first quarter ending March 31. Net income increased 78 percent to $49.1 million, while earnings per share rose 52 percent compared to the 1996 period. Also, operating profits increased 64 percent to $88.8 million from $54.2 million.

New Division National Seal Co., Aurora, Ill., has announced the creation of its Piping and Gas Collection Systems Division. This new division offers complete systems for landfill gas recover and other HDPE pipe installations and will be headquartered in Baton Rouge, La.

Paperboard Alliance The 100% Recycled Paperboard Alliance joined with eight major packaged goods companies to participate in a high-visibility marketing campaign featuring products packaged in 100 percent recycled paperboard. The companies include: General Mills, Lever Brother Co., The Dial Corp., Martin's Potato Chips, New Mexico's Kitchen, Oceana Foods, Comet American Marketing and General Building Corp.

Patent SwapLoader, Des Moines, Iowa, a manufacturer of hook-lift hoists, has been awarded a U.S. patent for the dual-capacity of its Model SL-2418HD, a model designed for medium-duty trucks with 96" cab-to-axle.

Purchase Reko B.V. has purchased an MSS VYDAR Automated Plastic Flake Removal System for installation in its PET recycling facility in Geleen, Holland, from MSS International Inc., Nashville, Tenn.

Fiscal USA Waste, Houston, reported financial results for the first quarter ending March 31. Net income in-creased 78 percent to $49.1 million, while earnings per share rose 52 percent compared to the 1996 period. Also, operating profits in-creased 64 percent to $88.8 million from $54.2 million.

Paperboard Alliance The 100% Recycled Paperboard Alliance joined with eight major packaged goods companies to participate in a high-visibility marketing campaign featuring products packaged in 100 percent recycled paperboard. The companies in-clude: General Mills, Lever Brothers Co., The Dial Corp., Martin's Potato Chips, New Mexico's Kitchen, Oceana Foods, Comet American Marketing and General Building Corp.

New Division National Seal Co., Aurora, Ill., has announced the creation of its Piping and Gas Collection Systems Division. This new division offers complete systems for landfill gas recover and other HDPE pipe installations. It will be headquartered in Baton Rouge, La.

Patent SwapLoader, Des Moines, Iowa, a manufacturer of hook-lift hoists, has been awarded a U.S. patent for the dual-capacity of its Model SL-2418HD, a model designed for medium-duty trucks with 96" cab-to-axle.

Purchase Reko B.V. has purchased an MSS VYDAR Automated Plastic Flake Removal System for installation in its PET recycling facility in Geleen, Holland, from MSS International Inc., Nashville, Tenn.

Purchase Reko B.V. has purchased an MSS VYDAR Automated Plastic Flake Removal System for installation in its PET recycling facility in Geleen, Holland, from MSS International Inc., Nashville, Tenn.

This technology also is being used by PET processors in New York, Switzerland, Germany and France.